Who were the most reliable leaders in history? Leadership, as we all know, is a challenging task. Some of today’s critical leadership skills are creating a united team, handling difficult situations, and inspiring your employees. And while these activities may seem straightforward on the surface, they can be tricky to do well. 

However, a few exceptional individuals have mastered the art of leadership throughout history. Then, who are some great leaders in history we can learn from?

Look closely at ten of history’s best leaders and what made them exceptional.

1. Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great was a skilled military leader who conquered large areas and built a vast empire. His ability to inspire his soldiers, lead by example, and adapt to changing circumstances made him an extraordinary leader.

One of the essential qualities that set Alexander the Great apart was his ability to inspire his soldiers. He had a natural charisma that drew people to him. 

In fact, Alexander always boosted his soldiers’ morale and determination, whether before a battle or during a brutal campaign.

But it wasn’t just his words that inspired his soldiers but also his actions. Indeed, Alexander led by example, always at the forefront of the battle. 

He fought alongside his men, showing them he was a commander and a warrior. This attitude earned him the respect and loyalty of his soldiers, who were willing to follow him to the ends of the earth.

Another aspect of Alexander’s leadership that made him exceptional was his ability to adapt to changing circumstances. 

He understood that the world was constantly evolving, and he was quick to adjust his strategies accordingly. Therefore, Alexander was always prepared to find a solution, whether it was a new enemy or a logistical challenge.

Lastly, Alexander the Great had a grand vision for his empire. He conquered lands to expand and create a lasting, prosperous empire. 

In sum, he implemented policies promoting cultural exchange and encouraged the blending of different traditions and ideas. This method fostered a sense of unity among his diverse subjects and laid the foundation for future civilizations.

2. Mahatma Gandhi 

Gandhi’s nonviolent resistance approach and unwavering commitment to justice and equality made him an iconic leader. His leadership shows that even in tough times, it’s possible to make reasonable changes and unite a divided country. 

Gandhi started as a leader in South Africa, facing discrimination and injustice. He created Satyagraha, a philosophy of nonviolence that believed in using truth and love to conquer oppression.

Humility and simplicity marked Gandhi’s leadership style. He lived a modest life, wearing traditional Indian clothing and practicing self-discipline. This lifestyle resonated with the Indian people, who saw him as a relatable figure and a symbol of hope.

One of Gandhi’s most notable achievements was the Salt March in 1930. He led many Indians on a long journey to the Arabian Sea to protest the British control of salt production. This peaceful protest gained international attention and showcased Gandhi’s ability to mobilize and unite people for a common cause.

Throughout his leadership, Gandhi emphasized the importance of inclusivity and equality. He fought against the caste system in India, advocating for the rights of the untouchables and promoting social harmony. This approach made all South Africans feel like they belonged and he promised to meet their needs and dreams. He might be the greatest leader humanity has met.

3. Nelson Mandela

Mandela’s remarkable leadership during South Africa’s apartheid era is legendary. Despite spending 27 years in prison, he emerged as a symbol of reconciliation and unity. Mandela’s ability to forgive, inclusive leadership style, and unwavering dedication to equality made him a true visionary. Mandela’s journey towards leadership began long before his imprisonment. 

Growing up in a racially divided society, he witnessed firsthand the injustices and discrimination faced by the black population. He was determined to fight for a South Africa where everyone would be treated equally, regardless of race.

During his time in prison, Mandela’s resolve only grew stronger. He used his confinement to educate himself, study law and politics, and deeply reflect on his country’s future. He honed his leadership skills in those prison walls and developed his vision for a united South Africa.

Upon his release, Mandela wasted no time putting his vision into action. He embarked on a journey of reconciliation, reaching out to his fellow black South Africans and the white minority. He understood that forgiveness and understanding, rather than revenge and bitterness, could achieve true unity.

Mandela’s inclusive leadership style was fresh air in a country torn apart by racial tensions. He wanted everyone’s input in making decisions, knowing that different viewpoints would result in better and long-lasting solutions. This approach fostered a sense of belonging among all South Africans as he committed to ensuring their needs and aspirations.

Throughout his presidency, Mandela remained steadfast in his commitment to equality. He implemented policies and initiatives aimed at dismantling the apartheid system and promoting social justice. He understood that true equality went beyond mere legal rights. It also involved addressing the deep-rooted economic and social disparities in South Africa.

Mandela’s leadership was not without its challenges. He faced resistance from those reluctant to let go of the old ways and feared losing their privilege. However, Mandela’s unwavering dedication to his principles and ability to inspire others through his words and actions ultimately prevailed.

Today, Mandela’s legacy is a testament to the power of forgiveness, inclusivity, and perseverance. His leadership serves as a reminder that even in the face of adversity, it is possible to bring about positive change and unite a divided nation. 

Mandela’s impact extends beyond South Africa’s borders, inspiring leaders worldwide to strive for justice, equality, and reconciliation.

4. Queen Elizabeth I 

Queen Elizabeth I‘s leadership skills were unparalleled as one of England’s most influential monarchs. She was a skilled leader who could handle political challenges, maintain stability, and inspire loyalty from her subjects. She was particularly adept at managing religious conflicts.

Her unwavering determination to protect and strengthen England marked Queen Elizabeth I’s leadership style. Despite facing numerous threats from foreign powers and internal conflicts, she managed to maintain a sense of stability and unity within her kingdom. 

One of Queen Elizabeth’s most outstanding achievements was her ability to navigate the treacherous waters of religious turmoil. During religious division in England, she successfully implemented policies to maintain a delicate balance between Catholics and Protestants. 

By establishing the Church of England, she sought to create a national church that would be acceptable to both sides, promoting unity and tolerance.

Furthermore, Queen Elizabeth’s leadership was characterized by her shrewd political maneuvering. She had a group of trusted advisors called the Privy Council. They helped her make important decisions and deal with complicated international politics. 

Her ability to listen to different perspectives and make informed choices earned her the respect and loyalty of her subjects. Queen Elizabeth’s reign also saw a flourishing of arts and culture, known as the Elizabethan era. She supported renowned playwrights such as William Shakespeare, who produced some of his most famous works during her reign. 

This cultural renaissance brought prestige to England and helped foster a sense of national identity and pride.

5. Winston Churchill

Winston Churchill was an influential leader in the 20th century. He had essential leadership skills that were vital during a time of worldwide trouble and conflict. 

He was a great speaker. His speeches were powerful and inspiring. They gave hope and motivation to the people of Britain and its allies. This happened during the toughest times of World War II. His words boosted morale and rallied support for the war effort by effectively communicating and motivating others.

Churchill’s determination was another defining aspect of his leadership. He showed strong dedication to his goals, especially during the war, not giving up despite the difficult challenges and setbacks. This steadfast resolve served as a source of strength for the nation and set an example of resilience in the face of adversity.

Moreover, Churchill’s strategic thinking and decision-making skills were critical in guiding the Allied forces to victory. His ability to strategize and make tough decisions during wartime, such as successfully planning military operations and coordinating international alliances, demonstrated his astute leadership in times of crisis.

Charisma was another inherent trait that bolstered Churchill’s leadership appeal. His dynamic personality and commanding presence captivated audiences and instilled confidence in his leadership. People were drawn to his strength, grit, and wit, strengthening his position as a revered leader.

Churchill’s profound understanding of history and its lessons significantly shaped his policies and leadership approach. His historical awareness allowed him to draw insights from the past and apply them to the present challenges, guiding his decision-making and strategic vision.

6. Abraham Lincoln

Abraham Lincoln, the 16th US President, was a great leader who shaped American history with his diverse leadership skills. 

He had great emotional intelligence, which helped him control his emotions and understand and empathize with others’ feelings. This ability to relate to others on an emotional level was vital in forging strong relationships and fostering unity within the nation during a tumultuous time.

Lincoln’s visionary leadership was evident in his clear and unwavering vision for the United States, particularly regarding the abolition of slavery. His dedication and steadfast pursuit of fairness laid the groundwork for significant societal and legal changes. These changes still have an impact today.

The communication skills of Abraham Lincoln were legendary, with his eloquent speeches, including the iconic Gettysburg Address, leaving an indelible mark on history. His ability to articulate profound ideas with eloquence and persuasion captivated audiences and rallied support for his vision, solidifying his position as a revered leader.

During the tumultuous period of the Civil War, Lincoln’s decision-making ability was tested as he navigated the complex and pivotal decisions necessary to guide the nation through the crisis. He led with a focused and determined decision-making style. He prioritized the nation’s well-being and aimed for a united and prosperous future.

Integrity was another cornerstone of Lincoln’s leadership. Despite the immense challenges and pressures of his presidency, he maintained a solid moral compass, earning the trust and admiration of the people. His unwavering commitment to ethical principles and the greater good exemplified principled leadership that inspired confidence and respect.

7. Eleanor Roosevelt

Eleanor Roosevelt, a long-serving First Lady, was a pioneering leader who strongly supported human rights. She was empathetic, had good communication skills, and showed resilience in tough times. She was also a visionary leader. 

Her legacy as a champion of justice and equality continues to inspire leaders and individuals across the globe.

Eleanor Roosevelt’s relentless advocacy for human rights distinguished her as a compassionate and influential leader. Her pivotal role in drafting the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights underscored her unwavering commitment to promoting the rights and dignity of all individuals, leaving an indelible mark on the international human rights agenda.

Her profound empathy and compassion enabled her to connect with people from all walks of life, demonstrating an in-depth understanding of human experiences and fostering a sense of inclusivity and support.

As a skilled communicator, Eleanor Roosevelt utilized her platform to disseminate powerful messages of hope, equality, and social justice. Her eloquence and ability to mobilize public sentiment through her speeches, writings, and advocacy efforts solidified her as a persuasive and influential figure.

Eleanor Roosevelt’s resilience in the face of personal and public adversities exemplified her strength of character. Despite facing significant challenges, she persevered and continued championing causes close to her heart, inspiring others with her unwavering determination and grit.

She was a forward-thinking leader who supported progressive changes and worked towards a future based on justice, equality, and compassion.

8. Catherine of Siena

Catherine of Siena was a respected Christian leader known for her spiritual guidance, diplomacy, bravery, persuasive communication, and strength. She was an influential and effective leader in her era. Her enduring impact continues to inspire individuals in the modern era.

As a deeply spiritual individual, Catherine utilized her faith as a compass to guide her actions in the complex political arena of her time. Her spiritual leadership greatly influenced her vision, values, and leadership style, making her a powerful agent for positive change.

Catherine’s proficiency in diplomacy was evident in her ability to navigate and negotiate within the intricate political landscape of her era. Her ability to convince and help resolve conflicts made her influential and respected. She had a significant impact on the events of her time.

Furthermore, Catherine of Siena’s moral courage was a defining aspect of her leadership. She was brave in promoting peace and change in the Church. She fearlessly questioned the existing situation. She fought for fairness. She supported the welfare of the disadvantaged and oppressed.

Her influential communication, demonstrated through her prolific letters and dialogues, served as powerful tools to influence leaders and shape the discourse of her time. Through her writings and exchanges, she effectively conveyed her ideas, insights, and aspirations, leaving an indelible mark on the hearts and minds of those in positions of power.

Catherine’s resilience was also exemplary, as she demonstrated exceptional strength in pursuing her goals despite numerous challenges and obstacles. Her unwavering determination and fortitude in the face of adversity underscored her leadership as a source of inspiration for future generations.

9. Steve Jobs

Steve Jobs, Apple co-founder, was a visionary leader with exceptional skills that changed the tech industry. His ability to inspire and drive innovation was unparalleled, setting him apart as a transformative figure in the business world.

Foresight and the ability to anticipate customer needs nurtured Steve Jobs’ visionary leadership. This ability led to groundbreaking products such as the Macintosh, iPod, iPhone, and iPad. His keen understanding of design, technology, and consumer behavior enabled him to lead Apple to unprecedented success and market dominance.

Furthermore, Jobs’ charismatic and influential communication style empowered and motivated his team to achieve extraordinary results. His constant drive for perfection and high standards pushed Apple to create groundbreaking products and set new standards for excellence.

He faced challenges, but his determination and belief in his vision helped him guide Apple through difficult times. This established his reputation as a revolutionary leader. His influence is still felt in technology and beyond.

10. Angela Merkel

Angela Merkel, the former Chancellor of Germany, showed excellent leadership skills as an influential political figure. Merkel had a pragmatic and rational approach to governance. 

Merkel united her party and negotiated with other nations by bringing people together and finding common ground. She made decisions based on facts, careful analysis, and practical considerations rather than political expediency or ideology. This approach allowed Germany to navigate numerous crises effectively, earning her respect as a steady and reliable leader.

Her adept crisis management skills were evident during significant challenges such as the global financial crisis, the Eurozone debt crisis, and the migrant crisis. Merkel’s calmness in tough times earned her a reputation as a leader who can guide her country through difficult periods.

Merkel united her party and negotiated with other nations by bringing people together and finding common ground. 

Her emphasis on listening, mediating, and carefully considering the perspectives of all involved parties facilitated effective governance and international cooperation.

Merkel’s ability to understand and connect with others’ feelings and viewpoints helped her to be a successful leader. She could do this both in her country and around the world.

Merkel exhibited resilience and endurance throughout her remarkable career, adapting to changing political landscapes and overcoming various challenges. People viewed her as reliable and trustworthy due to her humble and down-to-earth nature. This set her apart from leaders who were charismatic or flashy.


Leadership examples from historical figures like Churchill, Lincoln, and Angela Merkl teach us valuable lessons. These lessons are always applicable, regardless of the period. These exceptional leaders demonstrated qualities that transcend time and continue to inspire and guide leaders and individuals today.

Although the challenges and contexts may vary, the basic principles of effective leadership stay the same over time. Their unwavering determination, strategic insight, ability to inspire through assertive communication and commitment to ethical principles serve as enduring beacons of leadership excellence.

We can become influential and ethical leaders by following these principles and applying them to today’s world. We have the power to inspire positive change in our societies and beyond. These leaders’ legacies shape our understanding of good leadership, inspiring future generations with their wisdom and guidance.

Are you ready to upgrade your leadership mindset and skills? Contact Dr. Aldo Civico for a consultation: aldo@aldocivico.com